Unable to bear his loss, Atum sent a fiery messenger, the Eye of Ra, to find his children. Khepri-Atum encompassed sunrise and sunset, thus reflecting the entire solar cycle. In his netherworld role, as well as his solar aspect, he is also often presented with the head of a ram. Atum was linked specifically with the evening sun, while Ra or the closely linked god Khepri were connected with the sun at morning and midday. Atum was linked specifically with the evening sun, while Ra or the closely linked god Khepri were connected with the sun at morning and midday. He produced from his own sneeze, or in some accounts, semen, Shu, the god of air, and Tefnut, the goddess of moisture. He also subdues other hostile forces in the netherworld such as the serpent Nehebu-Kau, who he overcomes by pressing his fingernail onto it's spine. By using magic spells, the king might even hope to surpass the power of Atum, becoming himself the supreme deity and rule as Atum over every god. Osiris was the father of Horus (of whom the king of Egypt was the living manifestation), and therefore Atum became a father of the pharaoh. The brother and sister, curious about the primeval waters that surrounded them, went to explore the waters and disappeared into the darkness. In the binary solar cycle, the serpentine Atum is contrasted with the ram-headed scarab Khepri—the young sun god, whose name is derived from the Egyptian hpr "to come into existence". Atum's family tree, consisting of the nine gods of the Heliopolitan Ennead and envisioned by the Heliopolitan theologians, eventually led through Shu (air) and Tefnut (moisture) who begat Geb (earth) and Nut (sky) who in turn parented Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys. Birth of Atum, God of Creation (Heliopolitan Mythology), Death of Atum, God of Creation (Heliopolitan Mythology), "God of Creation", "Atem", "Atum-Ra", "Tem", "Re-Atum", "The Complete One", "Finisher of the World", "The Creator". Atum was the father of the gods, creating the first divine couple, Shu and Tefnut, who he produced by copulating with himself. [14] The 68 ft (20.73 m) high red granite obelisk weighs 120 tons (240,000 lbs). Atum's cult centered on the city of Heliopolis (Egyptian: Annu). Other interpretations state that he has made union with his shadow. However, he might also be represented as a mongoose (ichneumon), lion, bull, lizard or ape. Atum (/ɑ-tum/), sometimes rendered as Atem or Tem, is an important deity in Egyptian mythology. Totality, in reference to Atum, implies an ultimate and unalterable state of perfection. [12], Atum was a self-created deity, the first being to emerge from the darkness and endless watery abyss that existed before creation. The largest of the rare statues of Atum is a group depicting King Horemheb of the 18th Dynasty kneeling in front of the seated god. Though Atum was not particularly a god of the populous, amulets and small reliquaries of lizards, which were one of his symbols, were worn in honor of the god in the Late Period. Essentially, everything which existed was considered a part of the flesh of Atum, and every individual thing was said to be one of millions of the god's kas, a concept which not only stressed the gods primacy in coming before all else, but also his importance as a universal god. [5], Atum is one of the most important and frequently mentioned deities from earliest times, as evidenced by his prominence in the Pyramid Texts, where he is portrayed as both a creator and father to the king. As creator he was seen as the underlying substance of the world, the deities and all things being made of his flesh or alternatively being his ka. Atum's name is thought to be derived from the word tem which means to complete or finish. Atum did so through masturbation, with the hand he used in this act representing the female principle inherent within him. egyptian mythology family tree atum mut khepri amun-RA RA khonsu sekhmet serket ptah seshat hathor thoth ma'at shu nefertum ~ isis osiris nephthys anuket khnum nieth set ~ horus ammit sobek anubis bastet four sons of horus During the New Kingdom, Atum, along with the Theban god Montu, is depicted escorting the king in the Temple of Amun at Karnak. Visit & Look Up Quick Results Now On celebrandoleonardo500.com! [14], Atum was a self-created deity, the first being to emerge from the darkness and endless watery abyss that existed before creation. [5] Other interpretations state that he has made union with his shadow. Atum (/ɑ.tum/, Egyptian: jtm(w) or tm(w), reconstructed [jaˈtaːmuw]; Coptic .mw-parser-output .script-coptic{font-family:"New Athena Unicode","MPH 2B Damase","FreeSerif","Arial Coptic",Quivira,Analecta,Antinoou,"Sophia Nubian","Noto Sans Coptic","Segoe UI Historic","Segoe UI Symbol"}ⲁⲧⲟⲩⲙ Atoum),[3][4] sometimes rendered as Atem or Tem, is an important deity in Egyptian mythology. Sometimes he is also shown as a serpent, the form he returns to at the end of the creative cycle, and also occasionally as a mongoose, lion, bull, lizard, or ape.[5]. Atum is most usually depicted in anthropomorphic form and is typically shown wearing the dual crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. Ancient Gods Speak, The: A Guide to Egyptian Religion, Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, The, Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many, Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, A, Gods of the Egyptians, The (Studies in Egyptian Mythology), CopyRights 1996-2020 Tour Egypt. In this nonexistence, Atum and Osiris will survive in the form of serpents. The Heliopolitan cosmogony holds that Atum was the god of creation whereby the world and existence sprang from primeval chaos. Thus he has been interpreted as being the 'complete one' and also the finisher of the world, which he returns to watery chaos at the end of the … At creation he emerged to engender himself and the gods. It was discovered in the Luxor temple cache only recently. [10], In the Book of the Dead, which was still current in the Graeco-Roman period, the sun god Atum is said to have ascended from chaos-waters with the appearance of a snake, the animal renewing itself every morning. He also provides protection to even those of non-royal blood, ensuring their safe passage past the Lake of Fire where there lurks a deadly dog-headed god who lives by swallowing souls and snatching hearts. Zoomorphically, Atum could be depicted or symbolized as a serpent in reference to his chthonic and primeval nature. He was the primeval mound which rose from the waters of creation and was represented in this aspect by the sacred ben-ben stone, which was worshipped at Heliopolis from the earliest dynasties. His most essential nature is that of the "self-engendered one", who arose at the beginning of time and who created the first gods through his semen, or according to another story, though his saliva. Please enable JavaScript in your browser's settings to use this part of Geni. As creator he was seen as the underlying substance of the world, the deities and all things being made of his flesh or alternatively being his ka. Sometimes he also is shown as a serpent, the form he returns to at the end of the creative cycle, and also occasionally as a mongoose, lion, bull, lizard, or ape.[2]. In the binary solar cycle, the serpentine Atum is contrasted with the scarab-headed god Khepri—the young sun god, whose name is derived from the Egyptian hpr "to come into existence".