R. 1:53). The Second Book of Kings merely states that Necho II met Josiah in battle at Megiddo and killed him, whereas the second book of Chronicles gives a lengthier account and states that Josiah was fatally wounded by Egyptian archers and was brought back to Jerusalem to die. (October 16, 2020). ." For a century, ever since Ahaz, Judah had been a vassal of the Assyrian empire. . 14b). Closer view of the inner court and House of the Temple of Solomon as depicted in a 3-D computer model, A sketch of the Temple of Solomon based on descriptions in the Tanakh, View of the Temple of Solomon with ceiling removed as depicted in a 3-D computer model, Death of king Josiah as illustrated by Francesco Conti, Tammuz (July/August) 609 BCE (aged 38–39). From Karl Marx to penicillin, take a mental check-up of the who, what, where and when in this quiz. According to ii Chronicles 35:20–24, Josiah ignored God's word and engaged Necho in battle. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/josiah, ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Josiah . Remains of buildings and walls discovered in the Jewish quarter of Old Jerusalem prove that the city expanded even more to the west. 1:18), thus admitting his guilt in not having heeded the prophet's advice. add. That temple stood as the only Jewish sacrificial shrine in the Land of Israel for almost 600 years until its destruction in 70 c.e. JOSIAH (Heb. Corrections? These have been found not only in the area of the Kingdom of Judah but also in Acre, Shechem, Ashdod, Gezer, etc. 1, chaps. It was within the context of these events that the framers of Deuteronomy were able to promulgate their reform program. . The author of Kings rates Josiah highest of all the kings of Judah after David because of his religious reforms, and there is some further reflection of this esteem in Jeremiah 22:15–16. 19b). the Judahite cult of Yahweh no longer tolerated other gods. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... A Study of History: Who, What, Where, and When? 34:8), so that its role is limited to bringing the people into a covenant to purge the land of the idolatrous practices in the former northern kingdom (II Chron. Weinfeld, Moshe; Sperlimg, S. "Josiah 14b). The archaeological evidence for Josiah's territorial control consists mostly of royal seal impressions on jar handles, which would limit his sphere of activity within the borders of Judah. ii Kings 21:11; 24:3; Jer. The extent of Judah's expansion in this period may be deduced from the list of Ezra 2 (= Neh. JOSIAH , or, in Hebrew, Yoʾshiyyahu, was a king of Judah (c. 640–609 bce). Chronicles, in contrast, tells about three stages of the reform: (1) in the eighth year of his reign (632 b.c.e.) ." 2:1, 65a–b; and cf. The borders of Judah as presented in this list undoubtedly go back to the times of Josiah and remained the same until the destruction of Jerusalem. Encyclopaedia Judaica. There are good reasons for antedating Josiah's reform to the discovery of the book: (1) The reforms of the other Judahite kings, e.g., Asa, Jehoshaphat, Jehoash, and Hezekiah, were put into effect without relying upon a written book. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 4:20; Ta'an. His grandfather Manasseh was one of the kings blamed for turning away from the worship of Yahweh. A fortress unearthed at Megiddo may be Josianic. Naveh, in bibl. (October 16, 2020). According to another opinion, he is considered a perfect example of a truly repentant individual (or 24). The establishing or renewing of the relationship between God and the people was always preceded by the removal of the foreign gods (Gen. 35:2–4; Josh. According to A. Alt (in bibl. (eds. 19a; et al. Josiah's death, especially in light of subsequent events, was considered a heavy loss for the nation, as may be learned from ii Chronicles 35:24–25: "All Judah and Jerusalem held mourning rites for Josiah … and the singers have spoken of Josiah in their laments to this day and have made these a rule in Israel…". The highland of Moab extends southwar…, Josquin des Prez ca. 7:3–4). ; Judg. Josiah is also credited with a brief revival of the Judean state and some expansion into the former Israelite kingdom to the north. The presentation of the events in ii Kings 23:4–20 leaves the impression that the reform had been performed step by step. The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/josiah. The parallel account in the much later history of 2 Chronicles 34–35, which divides this reform activity between the twelfth and eighteenth years, probably has no independent validity and so should not be used in the reconstruction of the events of his reign. . Though one has to take into account previous organizations by *Jehoshaphat and *Hezekiah which might be reflected in these lists, there is no doubt that the final formulation of these lists was done in the Josianic period; this may be corroborated by the archaeological evidence cited above. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. 9:5, 39a). . The gradual political deterioration of the Assyrian Empire adds support to the supposition of a gradual takeover of the northern territories by Josiah. ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Josiah The reform found its full implementation beginning in the Persian period, which saw the reconstruction of the temple in 520. Nevertheless, most scholars believe he existed and that the absence of documents is due to few documents of any sort surviving from this very early period, and to Jerusalem having been occupied, conquered, and rebuilt for thousands of years. The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Bacher, Tann; Frankel, Mishnah, 154–7; Hyman, Toledot, 529–31; Neusner, Babylonia, 1 (1965), 128–35; idem, in: paajr, 30 (1962), 92ff. When Pharaoh, in his campaign against the Assyrians, wished to travel through the Land of Israel, Jeremiah advised the king not to deny the Egyptians passage. Josiah became king of Judah at the age of eight, after the assassination of his father, King Amon, and reigned for thirty-one years, from 641/640 to 610/609 BCE. 2:1) as if the verb were from the root kash, meaning stubble, and rendering it as "let us remove our own stubble before removing the stubble of others," i.e., "let us mend our own ways before pointing out other peoples' faults" (tj, Ta'an. If that account is accurate, then pious King Josiah had been tolerating a temple "overloaded with idolatrous objects" (Japhet, 1019) for 17 years of his reign, as had the high priest Hilkiah. ." he started "to seek the God of David" (ii Chron. ASA (Heb. Encyclopedia of Religion. ), Scripture in Context II (1983), 177–89; M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB; 1988), 277–302; M. Weinfeld, Deuteronomy 1–11 (1991), 65–84; S. Japhet, i & ii Chronicles (1993), 1015–59; W. Dever, in: M. Cogan et al. It must be kept in mind that the presentation of events in 2 Kings 22–23 is shaped by a historian whose outlook is strongly influenced by Deuteronomy. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/josiah. No exact date can be given for the centralization of the cult. According to the Hebrew Bible, Josiah was the son of King Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. 123; Deut. . Hoping to keep Mesopotamia divided, Necho II, the Egyptian pharaoh, set out to aid the hard-pressed Assyrians. (October 16, 2020). . The subsequent Babylonian hegemony led to the end of de facto Judean independence for the next four centuries. Gen. R. ed. Josiah was the grandson of Manasseh, king of Judah, and ascended the throne at age eight after the assassination of his father, Amon, in 641. Encyclopedia.com. Encyclopaedia Judaica. Imperial policy imposed alien cults on Judah that suppressed or obscured the Israelite religious identity. ), Scripture and Other Artifacts Essays… P. King (1994), 143–68, incl. 104a). Josiah went to Megiddo to meet the Pharaoh, who killed him there. Josiah is credited by most biblical scholars with having established or compiled important Hebrew Scriptures. https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/josiah, JOHN BOWKER "Josiah (October 16, 2020). Join us as we look at children in the Bible God used. According to the Hebrew Bible, Josiah was the son of King Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. During Josiah's reign, Jerusalem developed greatly, and it is at this time that a new wall was built on the western slopes of the city, and new quarters (Mishneh and Maktesh) were constructed which served mainly as industrial and commercial centers. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/josiah. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, ASA The time of Josiah is thus understood as a period of nationalistic and religious fervor resulting from the decline of Assyrian domination and influence in the west. . Van Seters, John "Josiah ), the lists of the cities of Judah, Simeon, Dan, and Benjamin in Joshua 15, 18, and 19 also reflect the Josianic administrative reorganization of Judah. His … (October 16, 2020). For the Chronicler there was need to purge the temple because he had already attributed that to the repentance of wicked King Manasseh (ii Chron. Josiah was the grandson of Manasseh, king of Judah, and ascended the throne at age eight after the assassination of his father, Amon, in 641. 61a). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Assyria, weakened by her struggle with Babylon, found the Egyptians as allies. After the fall of Nineveh in 612, the Assyrian army consolidated its positions in the western part of the empire, Harran and Carchemish. ." His talmudic dicta cover a wide variety of subjects. Heinemann, Toledot, 531f. 4, The Age of the Monarchies, edited by Abraham Malamat (Jerusalem, 1979), pt. 15:62), which had been founded at the time of Josiah as a balsam plantation of the king (Mazar and Dunayewski, in bibl.). 16 Oct. 2020 . The King of Egypt assured Josiah that he had no designs upon Judea's independence, and requested free peaceful transit through the land. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Consequently he challenged the pharaoh to battle; but it is reported that “Necho slew him at Megiddo, when he saw him” (2 Kings 23:29). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Freedman, Harry "Josiah by the Romans. (eds. Encyclopedia.com. Cross and D.N. But the request was refused. 15:4) with which he is concerned. Many of his other rulings also incline to leniency. The pledge of the people to observe the Law "as written in the book" brought about a metamorphosis in Israelite religion. SOLOMON (Heb. Thanks to Josiah's circle, Jews began to seek God's word in the book of Torah. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Encyclopedia of Religion. He sent his pious sympathizers to inspect the homes of the people and was satisfied with their report that no idols were found. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Josiah, Jewish Virtual Library - Biography of Josiah, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Josias, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Josiah. "emasculate"] of the verse and then interpret it." Very frequently he appears alongside his colleague Jonathan, another of R. Ishmael's pupils, with whom Josiah often disagrees.