© Copyright The Student Room 2017 all rights reserved. In sum, to change gendered social orders to be more equal (or, alternatively, less gendered) will take individual effort and modification of gender-stereotyped attitudes and values, but most of all, a restructuring of work and family through the policies and practices of large-scale corporations and the governments of dominant nations. Throughout the world, women are vulnerable to beatings, rape, and murder—often by their husbands or boyfriends, and especially when they try to leave an abusive relationship. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Duncan Hall is Subject Lead for Politics and Sociology for tutor2u. Anonymous, Started by: Other heterosexual couples have reversed roles—the woman is the breadwinner and the man cares for the children and keeps house. Linda Woodhead argues that religion is not necessarily sexist or patriarchal and writes of a “religious feminism.” For example, she argues that the veil, in Islamic societies, has been misinterpreted by some western feminists. ): Matthes, J. beachpanda, Started by: As a result women have been pressured into more traditional roles and for example, in Islamic nations felt more inclined to cover. : Harvard University Press. In most of the religions there is great philosophical and theological teachings about essence of human life including equality of sexes. A traditional view is that women’s expressive role (nurturing and caring) is a good match with religious faith. The structured patterns of opportunities and access far override most individual employers’ tastes or individual workers’ motivations, ambitions, personal desires, and material needs. Workers are ranked by employers from their first picks to their last. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Men have drifted away from the main established religions at a faster rate than women, but they tend not to have replaced this with alternative spiritual beliefs, whereas women are attracted to what Woodhead and Heelas call the holistic milieu. Women and men who are not of the dominant racial or ethnic group tend not to rise to the top in their work organization, unless practically all the workers are women or men of the same racial or ethnic group. During shifts of labor queues up and down the job ladder, the potential for conflict between women and men as well as between members of dominant and subordinated racial and ethnic groups is high. Women are also more likely than men to get involved in religious sects. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Gender, race, ethnicity, and social class are the most commonly used categories in sociology. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Pope, all the cardinals, archbishops, bishops and priests are men. Hence we have the paradoxical situation that in some religious teachings an idealized exaltation of women in role as mother and wife occur in some instances an ideal of woman in her eternal essence is projected when in actual social life subjugation is woman's common lot. Better job opportunities are offered to men of the dominant racial and ethnic groups to encourage them to give their all to the job. The source of gendered social orders lies in the evolution of human societies and their diversity in history. Within gender-typed occupations, jobs or specialties may be gender typed in the opposite direction. These programs were not widely implemented; women’s work continues to be paid less than men’s even when a man does the work. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Boston: Unwin Hyman. (Hg. In: Höpflinger A.-K./Jeffers, A./Pezzoli-Olgiati, D. Boserup, E. (1987) Women’s Role in Economic Development, 2nd ed. Compared to men, women are more likely: To express a greater interest in religion, to have stronger personal faith and belief in life after death, and have a stronger personal religious commitment; To involve themselves more in religious rituals and worship — e.g.