Moreover, their behavior towards each other is also largely a function of both these dimensions (Appendix 9A). However, for state-societies, the consensus or equilibrium-of-values perspective on society prevails, at least in the United States. Related problems are the peaceful uses of atomic energy, with which the International Atomic Energy Agency and most governments are deeply concerned. The above definition considerably broadens the scope of international relations to such an extent that it becomes unmanageable and unwieldy. Antagonism, conflicts, and violence exist, but in general are less in intensity than can be expected within many states. but also their interactions with the international system, organizations, social groups, and so on. An international group represents but a certain formalization of the balance of interests, capabilities, and wills of members. Wiley, New York, 1931. 1972) p. 11. Desire to secure a sufficient food supply especially on the part of those states whose population is large and growing and whose industrial development has congregated a large part of their population in cities, is a prime factor in international policy. Many of the problems of international relations are unsolvable under present conditions. Some of these are relatively permanent and can be controlled or changed by human effort only in a limited degree. But as soon as an issue arises which involves, or is thought to involve, the power of one state in relation to another, the matter at once becomes political. For the protection of their home industry and as a phase of their commercial rivalry, states erect tariff barriers against their competitors or exclude competitive products coming from other states. The process of treaty-making consists of the negotiations, during which the proposals are discussed and a tentative agreement is reached, the drafting of the agreement in a manner satisfactory to all parties concerned, the signing of the document by the accredited agents, and the reference of the treaty to the home government for final approval. By this process many rules of international law have been created in recent years. FRASER, H. F. Foreign Trade and World Politics. It is true that monarchic states have waged wars or dynastic purposes in which the mass of the people had no interest, that ambitious rulers have desired conquest for their personal aggrandizement, that the ruling class has sometimes favored a foreign war to distract the people at home from attempts at internal reform, and that business interests have drawn their country into war for their financial profit. The incompatible interests of these sovereign states cause conflict, and international politics is the natural outcome of the conflict of sovereign states. These assumed agreements can then be used to contrast existing government against what ought to be. A society at any one time is itself a balance, whether we talk of society as the city, province, state, or international system. the sovereign States. There is an important intellectual division on this point. After two decades, in what became known as the Nixon Doctrine, this policy was limited to helping only those who would help themselves. Two of these disputes, the German question and the Cuba missiles dispute, raised grave dangers to the world in that the great powers were directly involved. Of course, the vast Soviet concentration camp system contained among its many victims communists who even in their suffering thought the system justified. Treaties, commercial contracts, and written agreements provide its explicit framework. 5: The Just Peace. Marxism, neo-Marxism, and non-Marxist conflict models have made inroads on this, but the influence of Talcott Parson's (1958) system approach is still strong. Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace (New York, 1954) pp. Geopolitics analysis can throw much light upon some of the major problems and attitudes to be prevalent in contemporary relations. James N. Rosenau, Pei-Spectives on World Politics in lames N. Rosenau, Kenneth Thompson and Gavin Boyd, World Politics: An Introduction (New York, 1976) p. 5.