However, because the differences remained, especially in vegans, after accounting for these factors, other unaccounted for factors may be important. Future work might benefit from examining possible biological pathways by investigating serum levels of vitamin D, vitamin B12, or IGF-1, or in assessing the possible roles of other nutrients that are abundant in animal-sourced foods. J Nutr. Thorpe DL, Knutsen SF, Lawrence Beeson W, Rajaram S, Fraser GE. The value of incorporating habitual dietary habits in addition to established parameters for predicting fracture risks in clinical settings should also be further explored. 2003;6:259–68. Am J Clin Nutr. Fiber also takes a lot of energy to digest. Like what you see here? The study has approval by a Multicentre Research Ethics Committee (Scotland A Research Ethics Committee). At recruitment, participants completed a questionnaire which asked about diet, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and medical history. Legumes and meat analogues consumption are associated with hip fracture risk independently of meat intake among Caucasian men and women: the Adventist Health Study-2. Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. clavicle, rib, and vertebra, n = 467) by diet group over an average of 17.6 years of follow-up. The equivalent rate differences were 4.1 (0.8, 7.6) more cases in vegetarians and 19.4 (9.6, 30.9) more cases in vegans for every 1000 people over 10 years. Odén A, McCloskey EV, Kanis JA, Harvey NC, Johansson H. Burden of high fracture probability worldwide: secular increases 2010–2040. EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK. That's likely due to the effects of weight loss, according to Kahleova. Vitamin D and calcium for the prevention of fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Calcium, diet and fracture risk: a prospective study of 1898 incident fractures among 34696 British women and men. Department of Health. Potential risk differences are plausible however, owing to differences in several dietary factors, such as the substantially lower intakes of calcium in vegans [4, 5], lower intakes of dietary protein in both vegetarians and vegans [6, 7], and the lower body mass index (BMI) of non-meat eaters [2, 8]. 2014;2014:1–25. Baseline characteristics and food and nutrient intakes of the EPIC-Oxford participants were summarised by diet group. All authors provided input on data analysis and interpretation of results. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review. 1 and Table 2). A low-fat, vegan diet could help with weight loss by speeding up metabolism and naturally reducing calorie intake, according to a new study. Compared with meat eaters and after adjustment for socio-economic factors, lifestyle confounders, and body mass index (BMI), the risks of hip fracture were higher in fish eaters (hazard ratio 1.26; 95% CI 1.02–1.54), vegetarians (1.25; 1.04–1.50), and vegans (2.31; 1.66–3.22), equivalent to rate differences of 2.9 (0.6–5.7), 2.9 (0.9–5.2), and 14.9 (7.9–24.5) more cases for every 1000 people over 10 years, respectively. Dietary intake of high-protein foods and other major foods in meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans in UK Biobank. Risks of hip fractures by age, sex, menopausal status, physical activity and BMI. About 3% of Americans follow a vegan diet. Risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke in meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians over 18 years of follow-up: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study. femur [excluding neck of femur], patella, tibia, and fibula), ankle, and other main sites (i.e. 2004;52:1121–9. Non-meat eaters, especially vegans, had higher risks of either total or some site-specific fractures, particularly hip fractures. Overall, we found that compared with meat eaters, vegans had higher risks of total, hip, leg, and vertebral fractures, while fish eaters and vegetarians had higher risk of hip fractures. The vegans also had higher risks of total (1.43; 1.20–1.70), leg (2.05; 1.23–3.41), and other main site fractures (1.59; 1.02–2.50) than meat eaters. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data. Fractures at the clavicle, rib, and vertebra were examined as one composite outcome due to the small number of cases at these sites, but the three sites were examined separately in secondary analyses. The only two other studies on the topic included a small number of participants and did not report on site-specific fractures [17, 18]. Subsequently, we estimated absolute rate differences based on the BMI adjusted model, using a previously reported method [28]. 1 and Table 2. J Nutr. Vegan diets can provide all of the nutrients that a person needs, and they can eliminate some of the possible risks that research has associated … Sobiecki JG, Appleby PN, Bradbury KE, Key TJ. 2019;2:e1917789. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians and vegans: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. 2019;11:1–18. BMJ. White IR, Royston P, Wood AM. 1 and Table 2), the largest magnitudes in risk difference by diet group were observed for hip fractures. "The underlying mechanism is buildup of fat," she said. Nutr Res. Fractures in adulthood and older ages are a common occurrence which pose a significant burden to health systems worldwide [1]. California Privacy Statement, Because the numbers of cases in these subgroup analyses were often very small, it is likely that we did not have sufficient power to identify possible differences. Karavasiloglou N, Selinger E, Gojda J, Rohrmann S, Kühn T. Differences in bone mineral density between adult vegetarians and nonvegetarians become marginal when accounting for differences in anthropometric factors. Public Health England. Bingham SA, Gill C, Welch A, Cassidy A, Runswick SA, Oakes S, et al. 2017;103:200–8. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study. Validity and repeatability of a simple index derived from the short physical activity questionnaire used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Stress fractures-a prospective study amongst recruits. By using this website, you agree to our 2014;100(Suppl):329S–35S. Warriner AH, Patkar NM, Curtis JR, Delzell E, Gary L, Kilgore M, et al. Osteoporos Int. ICD codes for incident fractures. Vegan participants also burned 14% more calories, on average, after meals than before switching diets. The study, published in The Lancet Planetary Health, is the first to comprehensively assess the relationship between the health and nutritional impacts of different dietary-change strategies and their environmental impacts across all major world regions. However, estimation of intakes of these nutrients by questionnaires has substantial error, and we were only able to account for differences in dietary calcium but not differences in calcium supplement use, since data on the latter were not available. Participants in the study weren't asked to restrict calories, but ended up eating an average of 350 calories less each day on a vegan diet. They had 10 fewer cases of … Holland B, Welch A, Unwin I, Buss D, Paul A, Southgate DAT. No significant differences were observed in risks of wrist or ankle fractures by diet group with or without BMI adjustment, nor for arm fractures after BMI adjustment. Researchers found that participants on the diet burned 14% more calories after meals, since the high-carb, high-fiber meals took more energy to digest. Br J Nutr. When the other main site fractures were examined separately, a significantly higher risk was observed in the vegans for vertebral fracture (2.42; 2.31, 4.48), but not for the other two sites (Additional File 1: Table S4). 1994;72:619. The underlying time variable was the age at recruitment to the age at diagnosis, death, or administrative censoring, whichever occurred first.