The former found himself isolated in a hostile country with only 22,000 legionaries and short of provisions, while on the other side of the river he was faced by Pompey with an army about twice as large in number. 0. In the time of Pliny the Elder, Pharsalus was a free state. ", The date of the actual decisive battle is given as 9 August 48 BC according to the republican calendar. The objective marker will lead you to Pharsalos Fort. [15] Another source adds that he had recruited Greek light infantry from Dolopia, Acarnania and Aetolia; these numbered no more than a few thousand. In 198 BC, in the Second Macedonian War, Philip V of Macedon sacked Palaepharsalos (Livy, Ab Urbe Condita 32.13.9), but left new Pharsalos untouched. Post Comment. During the First Greco-Turkish War (1897), a major battle [el] took place in the vicinity of Farsala. This is supported by excavated remains of a fortified site called Xylades near Enipeus, which is located in the easternmost part of the Pharsalian territory. John D. Morgan in his definitive "Palae-pharsalus – the Battle and the Town",[7] shows that Palaepharsalus cannot have been at Palaiokastro, as Béquignon thought (a site abandoned c. 500 BC), nor the hill of Fatih-Dzami within the walls of Pharsalus itself, as Kromayer (1903, 1931) and Gwatkin thought; and Morgan argues that it is probably also not the hill of Khtouri (Koutouri), some 7 miles north-west of Pharsalus on the south bank of the Enipeus, as Lucas and Holmes thought, although that remains a possibility. A dispute between Caesar and the optimates faction with many of Rome’s aristocrats and well to do patricians in the Senate of Rome,[2] culminated in Caesar marching his army on Rome and forcing Pompey, accompanied by much of the Roman Senate, to flee in 49 BC from Italy to Greece, where he could better conscript an army to face his former ally. 3 x Free Captive. Pompey's legions were arrayed in the traditional three line formation (triplex acies): four cohorts in the front line and three in the second and third lines each. [1], Kassandra did infiltrate the fort, killing the decoy in addition to the polemarch and the captains there, claiming their riches. Next Random events Prev Introduction. Farsala is an economic and agricultural centre of the region. Small scale urbanization processes attracted population from surrounded villages during the 80's and 90's creating an urban landscape typical of Greek cities with small apartment buildings in nearby plots of land. 5 x Free Captive. Although the battle of 48 BC is called after Pharsalos, four ancient writers – the author of the Bellum Alexandrinum (48.1), Frontinus (Strategemata 2.3.22), Eutropius (20), and Orosius (6.15.27) – place it specifically at Palaeopharsalos. Finally, Mark Antony rallied the remaining forces in Italy, fought through the blockade and made the crossing, reinforcing Caesar's forces in both men and spirit. [13], The total number of soldiers on each side is unknown because ancient accounts of the battle focused primarily on giving the numbers of Italian legionaries only, regarding allied non-citizen contingents as inferior and inconsequential. Cotton and livestock are the main agricultural products, and many inhabitants are employed in the production of textile. As Pompey's infantry fought, Labienus ordered the Pompeian cavalry on his left flank to attack Caesar's cavalry; as expected they successfully pushed back Caesar's cavalry. Pompey fled from Pharsalus to Egypt, where he was assassinated on the order of Ptolemy XIII. After Pompey's defeat former allies began to align themselves with Caesar as some came to believe the gods favored him, while for others it was simple self-preservation. Scan the place well with the eagle vision to get the location of all the guards around. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Upon seeing the disposition of Pompey's army Caesar grew discomforted, and further thinned his third line in order to form a fourth line on his right: this to counter the onslaught of the enemy cavalry, which he knew his numerically inferior cavalry could not withstand. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός", "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. An increasing number of scholars, however, have argued for a location on the north side of the river. 19. An independent location. It was one of the main cities in Thessaly and was the capital of the Phthian tetrarch. The municipality Farsala was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that became municipal units:[13]. "[42] The battle itself did not end the civil war but it was decisive and gave Caesar a much needed boost in legitimacy. The Battle of Pharsalus ended the wars of the First Triumvirate. [34] Seeing that Pompey's army was not advancing, Caesar's infantry under Mark Antony and Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus started the advance. Caesar ordered a wall to be built around Pompey's position in order to cut off water and pasture land for his horses. [1] Pompey had the backing of a majority of the senators, of whom many were optimates, and his army significantly outnumbered the veteran Caesarian legions. Caesar then revealed his hidden fourth line of infantry and surprised Pompey's cavalry charge; Caesar's men were ordered to leap up and use their pila to thrust at Pompey's cavalry instead of throwing them. Until then much of the Roman world outside Italy supported Pompey and his allies due to the extensive list of clients he held in all corners of the Republic. Ultimately the standoff was broken when a traitor in Caesar's army informed Pompey of a weakness in Caesar's wall. World map - locations | Maps & Secrets AC IV: Black Flag Guide. Farsala lies at the southern edge of the Thessalian Plain, 4 km south of the river Enipeas. This caused Caesar to remark, "Today the victory had been the enemy's, had there been any one among them to gain it. Morgan places Pompey's camp a mile to the west of Krini, just north of the village of Avra (formerly Sarikayia), and Caesar's camp some four miles to the east-south-east of Pompey's. Although Pompey was strongly against it – he wanted to surround and starve Caesar's army instead – he eventually gave in and accepted battle from Caesar on a field near Pharsalus. 13. His left flank, resting on the Enipeus River, consisted of his battle worn IXth legion supplemented by the VIIIth legion, these were commanded by Mark Antony. [10][11], Although it is often called the Battle of Pharsalus by modern historians, this name was rarely used in the ancient sources. [22] Many of the foreigners were serving under their own rulers, for more than a dozen despots and petty kings under Roman influence in the east were Pompey's personal clients and some elected to attend in person, or send proxies.[20]. [9] Near Old and New Pharsalus was a "Thetideion", or temple dedicated to Thetis, the mother of Achilles. [6] Among the scholars arguing for the south side are Béquignon (1928), Bruère (1951), and Gwatkin (1956). [41] Ptolemy XIII sent Pompey's head to Caesar in an effort to win his favor, but instead secured him as a furious enemy. When this was rebuffed he made an attempt to cross back to Italy to collect his missing troops, but was turned back by a storm. In the early 4th century BC, the city was a part of the Thessalian Commons. Ainigmata Ostraka riddles and solutions, tombs and ancient steles, … The city during the classical period was influential as demonstrated in the influence wielded by the tetrach Daochos, who ruled from Pharsalos. A pirate island. He also questioned Pompey's decision not to charge.[40]. Ptolemy, advised by his regent, the eunuch Pothinus, and his rhetoric tutor Theodotus of Chios, had failed to take into account that Caesar was granting amnesty to a great number of those of the senatorial faction in their defeat. After failing to reform, the rest of the Pompey's cavalry retreated to the hills, leaving the left wing of Pompey's legions exposed to the hidden troops as Caesar's cavalry wheeled around their flank. All of Caesar's legions were understrength; some only had about a thousand men at the time of Pharsalus, due partly to losses at Dyrrhachium and partly to Caesar's wish to rapidly advance with a picked body as opposed to a ponderous movement with a large army. For the city of Rome and its entire empire, even then great and mighty, lay before them as the prize, since it was clear to all that it would be the slave of him who then conquered. [27] He stationed in the center and wings the troops in which he placed most confidence: on the left stood the two legions which Caesar had given to the Senate shortly before the civil war began, while the two legions brought from Syria by Scipio were placed in the middle, and on the right the legion from Cilicia together with the cohorts brought from Spain; the space between these experienced soldiers was filled with raw recruits. On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). The whole area suffered great destruction during the Roman Civil War. [16] Pompey fielded 88 cohorts of Roman infantry, the strength of which Brunt and Wylie estimated as 38,000 men, while Greenhalgh said they contained a maximum of 36,000.